Timothy L. Hubbard's Scientific Publications

Scientific publications are listed by topic area and by year of publication. Because of copyright laws, I cannot post the final version of any publication on this page, and so individuals desiring a copy of any of the publications listed here are urged to consult their local library or the journal/publisher website. In some cases, I can provide a reprint upon request.

By Topic Area

[Spatial Biases and Cognitive Dynamics] [Visual Imagery and Memory Psychophysics]
[Music Cognition and Auditory Imagery] [Consciousness Studies and Philosophy]
[Commentaries, Abstracts, and Proceedings]


By Year

[2020] [2019] [2018] [2017] [2016] [2015] [2014] [2013] [2012] [2011] [2010]
[2009] [2008] [2007] [2006] [2005] [2004] [2003] [2002] [2001] [2000] [1999]
[1998] [1997] [1996] [1995] [1994] [1993] [1992] [1990] [1989] [1988]


Spatial Biases and Cognitive Dynamics:

Hubbard, T. L. (in press). Representational gravity: Empirical findings and theoretical implications. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review.

Hubbard, T. L. (2019). Momentum-like effects and the dynamics of perception, cognition, and action. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 81, 2155-2170.

Hubbard, T. L. (2019). Spatiotemporal illusions involving perceived motion. In V. Arstila, A. Bardon, S. Power, & A. Vatakis (Eds.). The illusions of time: Philosophical and psychological essays on timing and time perception (pp. 289-313). London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Hubbard, T. L. (2018). Aesthetics and preferences in spatial and scene composition. In T. L. Hubbard (Ed.). Spatial biases in perception and cognition (pp. 223-240). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Hubbard, T. L. (2018). Influences on representational momentum. In T. L. Hubbard (Ed.). Spatial biases in perception and cognition (pp. 121-138). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Hubbard, T. L. (Ed.). (2018). Spatial biases in perception and cognition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Hubbard, T. L. (2018). The flash-lag effect. In T. L. Hubbard (Ed.). Spatial biases in perception and cognition (pp. 139-155). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2018). Changes in color and location as cues of generative transmission in perception of causality. Visual Cognition, 26, 268-284.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2018). Does allocation of attention influence relative velocity and strength of illusory line motion? Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 147. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg2018.00147

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2018). Representational momentum and anisotropies in nearby visual space. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 80, 94-105.

Hubbard, T. L. (2017). Toward a general theory of momentum-like effects. Behavioural Processes, 141, 50-66.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2017). Perceived causality, force, and resistance in the absence of launching. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 24, 591-596.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2017). The (dynamic) mind in the cave: Representational space of cave paintings and petroglyphs. Empirical Studies of the Arts, 35, 67-92.

McCrink, K., & Hubbard, T. L. (2017). Dividing attention increases operational momentum. Journal of Numerical Cognition, 3, 230-245.

Hubbard, T. L. (2015). The Varieties of Momentum-Like Experience. Psychological Bulletin, 141, 1081-1119.

Hubbard, T. L. (2015). Forms of momentum across time: Behavioral and psychological. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 36, 47-82.

Hubbard, T. L. (2014). Forms of momentum across space: Representational, operational, and attentional. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 1371-1403.

Hubbard, T. L. (2014). The flash-lag effect and related mislocalizations: Findings, properties, and theories. Psychological Bulletin, 140, 308-338.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2014). An effect of contrast and luminance on visual representational momentum for location. Perception, 43, 754-766.

Hubbard, T. L. (2013). Do the flash-lag effect and representational momentum involve similar extrapolations? Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 290.

Hubbard, T. L. (2013). Launching, entraining, and representational momentum: Evidence consistent with an impetus heuristic in perception of causality. Axiomathes, 23, 633-643.

Hubbard, T. L. (2013). Phenomenal causality I: Varieties and variables. Axiomathes, 23, 1-42.

Hubbard, T. L. (2013). Phenomenal causality II: Integration and implication. Axiomathes, 23, 485-524.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2013). A Fröhlich effect and representational gravity in memory for auditory pitch. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 39, 1153-1164.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2013). Displacement of location in illusory line motion. Psychological Research/Psychologische Forschung, 77, 260-276.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2013). Ratings of causality and force in launching and shattering. Visual Cognition, 21, 987-1009.

Hubbard, T. L. (2012). Visual perception of force: Comment on White (2012). Psychological Bulletin, 138, 616-623.

Hutchison, J. L., Hubbard, T. L., Farrandino, B., Brigante, R., Wright, J. M., & Rypma, B. (2012). Auditory memory distortion for spoken prose. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 38, 1469-1489.

Hubbard, T. L. (2011). Extending pragnanz: Dynamic aspects of mental representation and Gestalt principles. In L. Albertazzi, G. van Tonder, & D. Vishwanath (Eds.), Perception beyond inference: The information content of visual processes. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press (pp. 75-108).

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2011). Effects of spatial cuing on the onset repulsion effect. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 73, 2236-2248.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2011). Effects of temporal and spatial separation on velocity and strength of illusory line motion. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 73, 1133-1146.

Hubbard, T. L. (2010). Approaches to representational momentum: Theories and models. In R. Nijhawan & B. Khurana (Eds.), Space and time in perception and action (pp. 338-365). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hubbard, T. L., & Courtney, J. R. (2010). Cross-modal influences on representational momentum and representational gravity. Perception, 39, 851-862.

Hubbard, T. L., Hutchison, J. L., & Courtney, J. R. (2010). Boundary extension: Findings and theories. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63, 1467-1494.

Hubbard, T. L., & Lange, M. (2010). Prior probabilities and representational momentum. Visual Cognition, 18, 1063-1087.

Hubbard, T. L., Kumar, A. M., & Carp, C. L. (2009). Effects of spatial cueing on representational momentum. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 35, 666-677.

Ruppel, S. E., Fleming, C. N., & Hubbard, T. L. (2009). Representational momentum is not (totally) impervious to error feedback. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63, 49-58.

Courtney, J. R., & Hubbard, T. L. (2008). Spatial memory and explicit knowledge: An effect of instruction on representational momentum. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61, 1778-1784.

Hubbard, T. L. (2008). Representational momentum contributes to motion induced mislocalization of stationary objects. Visual Cognition, 16, 44-67.

Hubbard, T. L., & Courtney, J. R. (2008). The onset repulsion effect and motion induced mislocalization of a stationary object. Perception, 37, 1386-1398.

Motes, M. A., Hubbard, T. L., Courtney, J. R., & Rypma, B. (2008). A principal components analysis of dynamic spatial memory biases. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34, 1076-1083.

Courtney, J. R., Motes, M. A., & Hubbard, T. L. (2007). Multi- and unisensory visual flash illusions. Perception, 36, 516-524.

Hubbard, T. L. (2006). Bridging the gap: Possible roles and contributions of representational momentum. Psicologica, 27, 1-34.

Hubbard, T. L. (2006). Computational theory and cognition in representational momentum and related types of displacement: A reply to Kerzel. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13, 174-177.

Hubbard, T. L. & Courtney, J. R. (2006). Evidence suggestive of separate visual dynamics in perception and in memory. In L. Albertazzi, (Ed.), Visual thought: The depictive space of the mind (pp. 71-98). Amsterdam: Benjamins Publishing Company.

Hubbard, T. L. (2005). An effect of target orientation on representational momentum. Paideia, 15, 207-216.

Hubbard, T. L. (2005). Representational momentum and related displacements in spatial memory: A review of the findings. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12, 822-851.

Hubbard, T. L., & Motes, M. A. (2005). An effect of context on whether memory for initial position exhibits a Fröhlich Effect or an Onset Repulsion Effect. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58A, 961-979.

Hubbard, T. L., Ruppel, S. E., & Courtney, J. R. (2005). The force of appearance: Gamma movement, naive impetus, and representational momentum. Psicologica, 26, 209-228.

Hubbard, T. L., & Favretto, A. (2003). Naive impetus and Michotte's "Tool Effect:" Evidence from representational momentum. Psychological Research/Psychologische Forschung, 67, 134-152.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2002). A possible role of naive impetus in Michotte's "Launching Effect:" Evidence from representational momentum. Visual Cognition, 9, 153-176.

Hubbard, T. L., & Motes, M. A. (2002). Does representational momentum reflect a distortion of the length or the endpoint of a trajectory? Cognition, 82, B89-B99.

Thornton, I. M., & Hubbard, T. L. (Eds.). (2002). Representational momentum: New findings, new directions. New York: Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis.

Hubbard, T. L. (2001). The effect of height in the picture plane on the forward displacement of ascending and descending targets. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 55, 325-330.

Hubbard, T. L., & Blessum, J. A. (2001). A structural dynamic of form: Displacements in memory for the size of an angle. Visual Cognition, 8, 725-749.

Hubbard, T. L., Blessum, J. A., & Ruppel, S. E. (2001). Representational momentum and Michotte's (1946/1963) "Launching Effect" paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27, 294-301.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2000). Spatial memory averaging, the landmark attraction effect, and representational gravity. Psychological Research/Psychologische Forschung, 64,41-55.

Hubbard, T. L., Matzenbacher, D. L., & Davis, S. E. (1999). Representational momentum in children: Dynamic information and analogue representation. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 88, 910-916.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (1999). Representational momentum and the landmark attraction effect. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 53, 242-256.

Hubbard, T. L. (1998). Representational momentum and other displacements in memory as evidence for nonconscious knowledge of physical principles. In S. R. Hameroff, A. W. Kaszniak & A. C. Scott (Eds.), Towards a science of consciousness II: The second Tucson discussions and debates. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press (pp. 505-512).

Hubbard, T. L. (1998). Some effects of representational friction, target size, and memory averaging on memory for vertically moving targets. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 52, 44-49.

Hubbard, T. L. (1997). Target size and displacement along the axis of implied gravitational attraction: Effects of implied weight and evidence of representational gravity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 23, 1484-1493.

Hubbard, T. L. (1996). Displacement in depth: Representational momentum and boundary extension. Psychological Research/Psychologische Forschung, 59, 33-47.

Hubbard, T. L. (1996). Representational momentum, centripetal force, and curvilinear impetus. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 22, 1049-1060.

Hubbard, T. L. (1995). Auditory representational momentum: Surface form, velocity, and direction effects. American Journal of Psychology, 108, 255-274.

Hubbard, T. L. (1995). Cognitive representation of motion: Evidence for friction and gravity analogues. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 241-254.

Hubbard, T. L. (1995). Environmental invariants in the representation of motion: Implied dynamics and representational momentum, gravity, friction, and centripetal force. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 2, 322-338.

Hubbard, T. L. (1994). Judged displacement: A modular process? American Journal of Psychology, 107, 359-373.

Hubbard, T. L. (1993). Auditory representational momentum: Musical schemata and modularity. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 31, 201-204.

Hubbard, T. L. (1993). The effects of context on visual representational momentum. Memory & Cognition, 21, 103-114.

Hubbard, T. L. (1990). Cognitive representation of linear motion: Possible direction and gravity effects in judged displacement. Memory & Cognition, 18, 299-309.

Hubbard, T. L., & Bharucha, J. J. (1988). Judged displacement in apparent vertical and horizontal motion. Perception & Psychophysics, 44, 211-221.

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Visual Imagery and Memory Psychophysics:

Hubbard, T. L. (1996). Synesthesia-like mappings of lightness, pitch, and melodic interval. American Journal of Psychology, 109, 219-238.

Hubbard, T. L. (1994). Memory psychophysics. Psychological Research/ Psychologische Forschung, 56, 237-250.

Hubbard, T. L. (1993). Cross-modality matching in memory psychophysics: Brightness and loudness. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 76, 1339-1357.

Hubbard, T. L., & Baird, J. C. (1993). The effects of size, clutter, and complexity on the vanishing point distance in visual imagery. Psychological Research/ Psychologische Forschung, 55, 223-236.

Baird, J. C., & Hubbard, T. L. (1992). The psychophysics of visual imagery. In: D. Algom, (Ed.), Psychophysical approaches to cognition. New York: Elsevier (pp. 389-440).

Hubbard, T. L., Kall, D., & Baird, J. C. (1989). Imagery, memory, and size-distance invariance. Memory & Cognition, 17, 87-94.

Hubbard, T. L., & Baird, J. C. (1988). Overflow, first-sight, and vanishing point distances in visual imagery. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 14, 641-649.

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Music Cognition and Auditory Imagery:

Hubbard, T. L. (2019). Neural mechanisms of musical imagery. In M. H. Thaut & D. A. Hodges (Eds.). The Oxford handbook of music and the brain (pp. 521-545). New York: Oxford University Press.

Hubbard, T. L. (2019). Some anticipatory, kinesthetic, and dynamic aspects of auditory imagery. In M. Grimshaw, M. Walther-Hansen, & M. Knakkergaard (Eds.). The Oxford handbook of sound and imagination, Vol. 1 (pp. 149-173). New York: Oxford University Press.

Hubbard, T. L. (2018). Some methodological and conceptual considerations in studies of auditory imagery. Auditory Perception & Cognition, 1, 6-41.

Hubbard, T. L. (2017). Momentum in music: Musical succession as physical motion. Psychomusicology: Music, Mind, and Brain, 27, 14-30.

Hutchison, J. L., Hubbard, T. L., Hubbard, N. A., & Rypma, B. (2017). Asymmetries in ear advantage for musical location and relative pitch: Effects of musical training and attention. Perception, 46, 745-762.

Neuhoff, J. G., & Hubbard, T. L. (2017). Voice, speech, and language: selected papers from APCAM. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 29, 1-2.

Hutchison, J. L., Hubbard, T. L., Hubbard, N. A., Brigante, R., & Rypma, B. (2015). Minding the gap: An experimental assessment of musical segmentation models. Psychomusicology: Music, Mind, and Brain, 25, 103-115.

Hubbard, T. L. (2013). Auditory aspects of auditory imagery. In S. Lacey & R. Lawson (Eds.). Multisensory imagery (pp. 51-76). New York: Springer.

Hubbard, T. L. (2013). Auditory imagery contains more than audition. In S. Lacey & R. Lawson (Eds.). Multisensory imagery (pp. 221-247). New York: Springer.

Hubbard, T. L. (2010). Auditory imagery: Empirical findings. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 302-329.

Collier, W. G., & Hubbard, T. L. (2004). Musical scales and brightness evaluations: Effects of pitch, direction, and scale mode. Musicae Scientiae, 8, 151-173.

Collier, W. G., & Hubbard, T. L. (2001). Judgments of happiness, brightness, speed and tempo change of auditory stimuli varying in pitch and tempo. Psychomusicology, 17, 36-55.

Collier, W. G., & Hubbard, T. L. (2001). Musical scales and happiness/awkwardness evaluations: Effects of pitch, direction, and scale mode. American Journal of Psychology, 114, 355-375.

Hubbard, T. L., & Datteri, D. L. (2001). Recognizing the component tones of a major chord. American Journal of Psychology, 114, 569-589.

Hubbard, T. L. (1998). Listeners can discriminate among major chord positions. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 87, 891-897.

Hubbard, T. L., & Stoeckig, K. (1992). The representation of pitch in musical imagery. In: D. Reisberg, (Ed.), Auditory imagery. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum (pp. 199-235).

Hubbard, T. L., & Stoeckig, K. (1988). Musical imagery: Generation of tones and chords. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 14, 656-667.

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Consciousness Studies and Philosophy:

Hubbard, T. L. (2012). Causal representation and shamanic experience. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 19, 202-228.

Hubbard, T. L. (2008). The inner meaning of outer space: Human nature and the celestial realm. Advances in Latin American Psychology (Special Issue on Nurturing Human Nature), 26, 52-65.

Hubbard, T. L. (2007). What is mental representation? And how does it relate to consciousness? Journal of Consciousness Studies, 14, 37-61.

Hubbard, T. L. (2003). Further correspondences and similarities of shamanism and cognitive science: Mental representation, implicit processing, and cognitive structures. Anthropology of Consciousness, 14, 40-74.

Hubbard, T. L. (2002). Some correspondences and similarities of shamanism and cognitive science: Interconnectedness, extension of meaning, and attribution of mental states. Anthropology of Consciousness, 13, 26-45.

Bootzin, R. R., Hubbard, T. L., Reiman, E. M., Bandy, D., Yun, L. S., & Munzlinger, T. G. (1998). Brain regions preferentially affected during different stages of sleep and wakefulness: A PET study. Sleep, 21, 272.

Hubbard, T. L. (1996). Consciousness and cognition beyond the body: Functionalist cognitive science and the possibility of out-of-body experiences and reincarnation. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 90, 202-220.

Hubbard, T. L. (1996). The importance of a consideration of qualia to imagery and cognition. Consciousness and Cognition, 5, 327-358.

Hubbard, T. L. (1994). Random cognitive activation in dreaming does not require a Cartesian theater. Dreaming, 4, 255-266.

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Commentaries, Abstracts, and Proceedings:

Hubbard, T. L. (2016). Musical succession and physical motion. In I. Skotnikova, O. Korolkova, I. Blinnikova, V. Doubrovski, V. Shedyapin, & N. Volkova (Eds.), Fechner Day 2016 - Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics (p.70), Moscow, Russia: International Society for Psychophysics.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2015). Representational space of cave paintings and petroglyphs. Perception, 44 (supplement), 70-71.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2015). Dissociation of perceived force and resistance: Implications for phenomenal causality and naive physics. In S. Grondin, & V. Laflamme (Eds.), Fechner Day 2015 - Proceedings of the 31st Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 18), Quebec City, Canada: International Society for Psychophysics.

Hubbard, T. L. (2014). The varieties of momentum-like experience. In G. R. Patching, M. Johnson, E. Borg, & Å. Hellström (Eds.), Fechner Day 2014 - Proceedings of the 30th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 34), Lund, Sweden: International Society for Psychophysics.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2014). The mind in the cave: Perception of Paleolithic paintings and petroglyphs. In G. R. Patching, M. Johnson, E. Borg, & Å. Hellström (Eds.), Fechner Day 2014 - Proceedings of the 30th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 35), Lund, Sweden: International Society for Psychophysics.

Hubbard, T. L. (2013). Is the flash-lag effect a special case of representational momentum? In J. Wackermann, M. Wittmann, & W. Skrandies (Eds.), Fechner Day 2013 - Proceedings of the 29th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 56), Freiburg, Germany: International Society for Psychophysics.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2013). Effects of contrast and background on visual representational momentum. In J. Wackermann, M. Wittmann, & W. Skrandies (Eds.), Fechner Day 2013 - Proceedings of the 29th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 101), Freiburg, Germany: International Society for Psychophysics.

Hubbard, T. L. (2011). Boundary extension as a new Gestalt principle. In D. Algom, D. Zakay, E. Chajut, S. Shaki, Y. Mama, & V. Shakuf (Eds.). Fechner Day 2011: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 65-70). Raanana, Israel: International Society for Psychophysics.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2011). A Fröhlich effect in memory for auditory pitch: Effects of cueing and of representational gravity. In D. Algom, D. Zakay, E. Chajut, S. Shaki, Y. Mama, & V. Shakuf (Eds.), Fechner Day 2011: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 89-94). Raanana, Israel: International Society for Psychophysics.

Hubbard, T. L. (2010). An impetus heuristic in the perception of causality. Perception, 39 (supplement), 97.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2010). Effects of temporal and spatial separation on velocity and strength of illusory line motion. In A. Bastianelli & G. Vidotto (Eds.), Fechner Day 2010: Proceedings of the 26th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 99-104). Padua, Italy: International Society for Psychophysics.

de sa Teixeira, N. A., & Hubbard, T. L. (2010). Auditory motion and visual representational momentum: Effects of response method. In A. Bastianelli & G. Vidotto (Eds.), Fechner Day 2010: Proceedings of the 26th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 415-420). Padua, Italy: International Society for Psychophysics.

Hubbard, T. L., & Lange, M. (2009). Prior probabilities and representational momentum. In M. A. Elliott, S. Antonijevic, S. Berthaud, P. Mulcahy, C. Martyn, B. Bargery, & H. Schmidt. (Eds.), Fechner Day 2009: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 509-514). Galway, Ireland: The International Society for Psychophysics.

Hubbard, T. L., & Courtney, J. R. (2009). Cross-modal influences on representational momentum and representational gravity. In M. A. Elliott, S. Antonijevic, S. Berthaud, P. Mulcahy, C. Martyn, B. Bargery, & H. Schmidt. (Eds.), Fechner Day 2009: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 173-178). Galway, Ireland: The International Society for Psychophysics.

Hubbard, T. L., & Lange, M. (2009). Prior probabilities and representational momentum: A signal detection analysis. Journal of Vision, 9, 692.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2009). Vertical illusory line motion and representational gravity. Perception, 38 (supplement), 177.

Courtney, J. R., & Hubbard, T. L. (2008). Boundary extension and memory for area and distance. In B. A. Schneider, B. M. Ben-David, S. Parker, & W. Wong. (Eds.), Fechner Day 2008. Proceedings of the 24th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics. Toronto, Canada: The International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 271-276).

Hubbard, T. L. (2008). Representational momentum as a new Gestalt principle. In B. A. Schneider, B. M. Ben-David, S. Parker, & W. Wong. (Eds.), Fechner Day 2008. Proceedings of the 24th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics. Toronto, Canada: The International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 333-338).

Hubbard, T. L., & Courtney, J. R. (2008). Effects of crossmodal information on representational momentum and representational gravity. Perception, 37 (supplement), 114.

Hubbard, T. L., Kumar, A. M., & Carp, C. L. (2008). Effects of spatial cue timing and relevance on representational momentum. Journal of Vision, 8, 599.

Hubbard, T. L., & Kumar, A. M. (2007). Effects of cueing attention on representational momentum. Perception, 36 (supplement), 186.

Hubbard, T. L. (2006). Representational momentum, flash-lag, and motion capture. In D. E. Kornbrut, R. M. Msetfi, & A. W. MacRae (Eds.), Fechner Day 2006. Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics. St. Albans, UK: The International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 131-136).

Hubbard, T. L., & Courtney, J. R. (2006). Onset repulsion and onset flash-lag: Effects on a stationary stimulus. Perception, 35 (supplement), 218-219. PDF

Hubbard, T. L. (2005). Representational momentum and the line-motion illusion. Perception, 34 (supplement), 233.

Hubbard, T. L. (2004). Does representational momentum contribute to the flash-lag effect? Perception, 33 (supplement), 156.

Hubbard, T. L. (2004). The perception of causality: Insights from Michotte's launching effect, naive impetus theory, and representational momentum. In A. M. Oliveira, M.P. Teixeira, G. F. Borges, & M. J. Ferro (Eds.), Fechner Day 2004. Coimbra, Portugal: The International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 116-121).

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2003). The force of appearance: Gamma movement, impetus, and representational momentum. Perception, 32 (supplement), 145.

Hubbard, T. L. (2002). Mental representation reflects subjective experience: Convergent evidence from imagery and representational momentum. Journal of Mental Imagery, 26, 60-65.

Hubbard, T. L., & Motes, M. A. (2002). The Fröhlich effect and the onset repulsion effect. Perception, 31 (supplement), 41.

Hubbard, T. L., & Motes, M. A. (2002). Memory for initial position: A Fröhlich effect or an onset repulsion effect? Journal of Vision, 2, 28.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2002). Naïve impetus, the launching effect, and representational momentum. Perception, 31 (supplement), 122.

Hubbard, T. L. (2001). How consequences of physical principles influence mental representation: Representational momentum and related types of displacement. Perception, 30 (supplement), 102.

Hubbard, T. L., & Motes, M. A. (2001). Does representational momentum reflect a distortion of the length or the endpoint of a trajectory? Perception, 30 (supplement), 105.

Favretto, A., & Hubbard, T. L. (2000). Effects of previous and succeeding target presentations on the displacement of memory for target lightness. Perception, 29 (supplement), 19.

Hubbard, T. L., & Favretto, A. (2000). The role of the tool in Michotte's "tool effect:" Evidence from representational momentum. Perception, 29 (supplement), 92.

Favretto, A., Hubbard, T. L., Brandimonte, M. A. & Gerbino, W. (1999). Effects of background luminance on representational momentum for lightness. Perception, 28 (supplement), 77.

Hubbard, T. L. (1999). How consequences of physical principles influence mental representation: The environmental invariants hypothesis. In P. R. Killeen & W. R. Uttal (Eds.), Fechner Day 99: The end of 20th century psychophysics. Proceedings of the 15th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics. Tempe, AZ, USA: The International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 274-279).

Hubbard, T. L., & Favretto, A. (1999). Representational momentum in Michotte's 'launching effect' and 'tool effect' paradigms. Perception, 28 (supplement), 44.

Hubbard, T. L. (1998). How consequences of physical principles influence mental representation: The environmental invariants hypothesis. Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Mahweh, NJ: Erlbaum (pp. 1228).

Hubbard, T. L. (1997). Target size and representational momentum: A re-evaluation of the momentum metaphor. Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Mahweh, NJ: Erlbaum (pp. 953).

Hubbard, T. L. (1996). Representational momentum and boundary extension: Evidence suggestive of a more general displacement mechanism. Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum (pp. 778).

Shames, V. A., & Hubbard, T. L. (1995). Consciousness beyond the comparator. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 18, 697.

Hubbard, T. L. (1993). Artificial intelligence. In F. N. Magill, (Ed.), Survey of the social sciences: Psychology. Pasadena, CA: Salem Press (pp. 299-306).

Hubbard, T. L. (1993). Logic and reasoning. In F. N. Magill, (Ed.), Survey of the social sciences: Psychology. Pasadena, CA: Salem Press (pp. 1471-1478).

Hubbard, T. L. (1993). Memory and schemata. In F. N. Magill, (Ed.), Survey of the social sciences: Psychology. Pasadena, CA: Salem Press (pp. 1549-1556).

Hubbard, T. L. (1990). Scientific reduction and the possibility of parapsychology: Parallels from cognitive psychology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 13, 384-385.

Johnson, J., Ettinger, R. H., & Hubbard, T. L. (1990). A long time ago in a computing lab far, far, away... Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 13, 670.

Hubbard, T. L., Baird, J. C., & Ajmal, A. (1989). Different skills or different knowledge? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 12, 86-87.

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2020:

Hubbard, T. L. (in press). Representational gravity: Empirical findings and theoretical implications. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review.

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2019:

Hubbard, T. L. (2019). Momentum-like effects and the dynamics of perception, cognition, and action. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 81, 2155-2170.

Hubbard, T. L. (2019). Neural mechanisms of musical imagery. In M. H. Thaut & D. A. Hodges (Eds.). The Oxford handbook of music and the brain (pp. 521-545). New York: Oxford University Press.

Hubbard, T. L. (2019). Some anticipatory, kinesthetic, and dynamic aspects of auditory imagery. In M. Grimshaw, M. Walther-Hansen, & M. Knakkergaard (Eds.). The Oxford handbook of sound and imagination, Vol. 1 (pp. 149-173). New York: Oxford University Press.

Hubbard, T. L. (2019). Spatiotemporal illusions involving perceived motion. In V. Arstila, A. Bardon, S. Power, & A. Vatakis (Eds.). The illusions of time: Philosophical and psychological essays on timing and time perception (pp. 289-313). London: Palgrave Macmillan.

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2018:

Hubbard, T. L. (2018). Aesthetics and preferences in spatial and scene composition. In T. L. Hubbard (Ed.). Spatial biases in perception and cognition (pp. 223-240). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Hubbard, T. L. (2018). Influences on representational momentum. In T. L. Hubbard (Ed.). Spatial biases in perception and cognition (pp. 121-138). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Hubbard, T. L. (2018). Some methodological and conceptual considerations in studies of auditory imagery. Auditory Perception & Cognition, 1, 6-41.

Hubbard, T. L. (Ed.). (2018). Spatial biases in perception and cognition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Hubbard, T. L. (2018). The flash-lag effect. In T. L. Hubbard (Ed.). Spatial biases in perception and cognition (pp. 139-155). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2018). Changes in color and location as cues of generative transmission in perception of causality. Visual Cognition, 26, 268-284.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2018). Does allocation of attention influence relative velocity and strength of illusory line motion? Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 147. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg2018.00147

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2018). Representational momentum and anisotropies in nearby visual space. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 80, 94-105.

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2017:

Hubbard, T. L. (2017). Momentum in music: Musical succession as physical motion. Psychomusicology: Music, Mind, and Brain, 27, 14-30.

Hubbard, T. L. (2017). Toward a general theory of momentum-like effects. Behavioural Processes, 141, 50-66.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2017). Perceived causality, force, and resistance in the absence of launching. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 24, 591-596.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2017). The (dynamic) mind in the cave: Representational space of cave paintings and petroglyphs. Empirical Studies of the Arts, 35, 67-92.

Hutchison, J. L., Hubbard, T. L., Hubbard, N. A., & Rypma, B. (2017). Asymmetries in ear advantage for musical location and relative pitch: Effects of musical training and attention. Perception, 46, 745-762.

McCrink, K., & Hubbard, T. L. (2017). Dividing attention increases operational momentum. Journal of Numerical Cognition, 3, 230-245.

Neuhoff, J. G., & Hubbard, T. L. (2017). Voice, speech, and language: selected papers from APCAM. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 29, 1-2.

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2016:

Hubbard, T. L. (2016). Musical succession and physical motion. In I. Skotnikova, O. Korolkova, I. Blinnikova, V. Doubrovski, V. Shedyapin, & N. Volkova (Eds.), Fechner Day 2016 - Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics (p.70), Moscow, Russia: International Society for Psychophysics.

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2015:

Hubbard, T. L. (2015). The Varieties of Momentum-Like Experience. Psychological Bulletin, 141, 1081-1119.

Hubbard, T. L. (2015). Forms of momentum across time: Behavioral and psychological. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 36, 47-82.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2015). Dissociation of perceived force and resistance: Implications for phenomenal causality and naive physics. In S. Grondin, & V. Laflamme (Eds.), Fechner Day 2015 - Proceedings of the 31st Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 18), Quebec City, Canada: International Society for Psychophysics.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2015). Representational space of cave paintings and petroglyphs. Perception, 44 (supplement), 70-71.

Hutchison, J. L., Hubbard, T. L., Hubbard, N. A., Brigante, R., & Rypma, B. (2015). Minding the gap: An experimental assessment of musical segmentation models. Psychomusicology: Music, Mind, and Brain, 25, 103-115.

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2014:

Hubbard, T. L. (2014). Forms of momentum across space: Representational, operational, and attentional. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 1371-1403.

Hubbard, T. L. (2014). The flash-lag effect and related mislocalizations: Findings, properties, and theories. Psychological Bulletin, 140, 308-338.

Hubbard, T. L. (2014). The varieties of momentum-like experience. In G. R. Patching, M. Johnson, E. Borg, & Å. Hellström (Eds.). Fechner Day 2014 - Proceedings of the 30th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 34), Lund, Sweden: International Society for Psychophysics.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2014). An effect of contrast and luminance on visual representational momentum for location. Perception, 43, 754-766. >

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2014). The mind in the cave: Perception of Paleolithic paintings and petroglyphs. In G. R. Patching, M. Johnson, E. Borg, & Å. Hellström (Eds.). Fechner Day 2014 - Proceedings of the 30th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 35), Lund, Sweden: International Society for Psychophysics.

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2013:

Hubbard, T. L. (2013). Auditory aspects of auditory imagery. In S. Lacey & R. Lawson (Eds.). Multisensory imagery (pp. 51-76). New York: Springer.

Hubbard, T. L. (2013). Auditory imagery contains more than audition. In S. Lacey & R. Lawson (Eds.). Multisensory imagery (pp. 221-247). New York: Springer.

Hubbard, T. L. (2013). Do the flash-lag effect and representational momentum involve similar extrapolations? Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 290.

Hubbard, T. L. (2013). Is the flash-lag effect a special case of representational momentum? In J. Wackermann, M. Wittmann, & W. Skrandies (Eds.). Fechner Day 2013 - Proceedings of the 29th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 56), Freiburg, Germany: International Society for Psychophysics.

Hubbard, T. L. (2013). Launching, entraining, and representational momentum: Evidence consistent with an impetus heuristic in perception of causality. Axiomathes, 23, 633-643.

Hubbard, T. L. (2013). Phenomenal causality I: Varieties and variables. Axiomathes, 23, 1-42.

Hubbard, T. L. (2013). Phenomenal causality II: Integration and implication. Axiomathes, 23, 485-524.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2013). A Fröhlich effect and representational gravity in memory for auditory pitch. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 39, 1153-1164.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2013). Displacement of location in illusory line motion. Psychological Research/Psychologische Forschung, 77, 260-276.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2013). Effects of contrast and background on visual representational momentum. In J. Wackermann, M. Wittmann, & W. Skrandies (Eds.). Fechner Day 2013 - Proceedings of the 29th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 101), Freiburg, Germany: International Society for Psychophysics.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2013). Ratings of causality and force in launching and shattering. Visual Cognition, 21, 987-1009.

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2012:

Hubbard, T. L. (2012). Causal representation and shamanic experience. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 19, 202-228.

Hubbard, T. L. (2012). Visual perception of force: Comment on White (2012). Psychological Bulletin, 138, 616-623.

Hutchison, J. L., Hubbard, T. L., Farrandino, B., Brigante, R., Wright, J. M., & Rypma, B. (2012). Auditory memory distortion for spoken prose. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 38, 1469-1489.

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2011:

Hubbard, T. L. (2011). Boundary extension as a new Gestalt principle. In D. Algom, D. Zakay, E. Chajut, S. Shaki, Y. Mama, & V. Shakuf (Eds.). Fechner Day 2011: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 65-70). Raanana, Israel: International Society for Psychophysics.

Hubbard, T. L. (2011). Extending pragnanz: Dynamic aspects of mental representation and Gestalt principles. In L. Albertazzi, G. van Tonder, & D. Vishwanath (Eds.), Perception beyond inference: The information content of visual processes. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press (pp. 75-108).

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2011). Effects of spatial cuing on the onset repulsion effect. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 73, 2236-2248.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2011). Effects of temporal and spatial separation on velocity and strength of illusory line motion. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 73, 1133-1146.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2011). A Fröhlich effect in memory for auditory pitch: Effects of cueing and of representational gravity. In D. Algom, D. Zakay, E. Chajut, S. Shaki, Y. Mama, & V. Shakuf (Eds.), Fechner Day 2011: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 89-94). Raanana, Israel: International Society for Psychophysics.

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2010:

Hubbard, T. L. (2010). An impetus heuristic in the perception of causality. Perception, 39 (supplement), 97.

Hubbard, T. L. (2010). Approaches to representational momentum: Theories and models. In R. Nijhawan & B. Khurana (Eds.), Space and time in perception and action (pp. 338-365). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hubbard, T. L. (2010). Auditory imagery: Empirical findings. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 302-329.

Hubbard, T. L., & Courtney, J. R. (2010). Cross-modal influences on representational momentum and representational gravity. Perception, 39, 851-862.

Hubbard, T. L., Hutchison, J. L., & Courtney, J. R. (2010). Boundary extension: Findings and theories. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63, 1467-1494.

Hubbard, T. L., & Lange, M. (2010). Prior probabilities and representational momentum. Visual Cognition, 18, 1063-1087.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2010). Effects of temporal and spatial separation on velocity and strength of illusory line motion. In A. Bastianelli & G. Vidotto (Eds.), Fechner Day 2010: Proceedings of the 26th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 99-104). Padua, Italy: International Society for Psychophysics.

de sa Teixeira, N. A., & Hubbard, T. L. (2010). Auditory motion and visual representational momentum: Effects of response method. In A. Bastianelli & G. Vidotto (Eds.), Fechner Day 2010: Proceedings of the 26th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 415-420). Padua, Italy: International Society for Psychophysics.

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2009:

Hubbard, T. L., & Courtney, J. R. (2009). Cross-modal influences on representational momentum and representational gravity. In M. A. Elliott, S. Antonijevic, S. Berthaud, P. Mulcahy, C. Martyn, B. Bargery, & H. Schmidt. (Eds.), Fechner Day 2009: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 173-178). Galway, Ireland: The International Society for Psychophysics.

Hubbard, T. L., Kumar, A. M., & Carp, C. L. (2009). Effects of spatial cueing on representational momentum. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 35, 666-677.

Hubbard, T. L., & Lange, M. (2009). Prior probabilities and representational momentum. In M. A. Elliott, S. Antonijevic, S. Berthaud, P. Mulcahy, C. Martyn, B. Bargery, & H. Schmidt. (Eds.), Fechner Day 2009: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 509-514). Galway, Ireland: The International Society for Psychophysics.

Hubbard, T. L., & Lange, M. (2009). Prior probabilities and representational momentum: A signal detection analysis. Journal of Vision, 9, 692.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2009). Vertical illusory line motion and representational gravity. Perception, 38 (supplement), 177.

Ruppel, S. E., Fleming, C. N., & Hubbard, T. L. (2009). Representational momentum is not (totally) impervious to error feedback. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63, 49-58.

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2008:

Courtney, J. R., & Hubbard, T. L. (2008). Boundary extension and memory for area and distance. In B. A. Schneider, B. M. Ben-David, S. Parker, & W. Wong. (Eds.), Fechner Day 2008. Proceedings of the 24th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics. Toronto, Canada: The International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 271-276).

Courtney, J. R., & Hubbard, T. L. (2008). Spatial memory and explicit knowledge: An effect of instruction on representational momentum. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61, 1778-1784.

Hubbard, T. L. (2008). Representational momentum as a new Gestalt principle. In B. A. Schneider, B. M. Ben-David, S. Parker, & W. Wong. (Eds.), Fechner Day 2008. Proceedings of the 24th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics. Toronto, Canada: The International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 333-338).

Hubbard, T. L. (2008). Representational momentum contributes to motion induced mislocalization of stationary objects. Visual Cognition, 16, 44-67.

Hubbard, T. L. (2008). The inner meaning of outer space: Human nature and the celestial realm. Advances in Latin American Psychology (Special Issue on Nurturing Human Nature), 26, 52-65.

Hubbard, T. L., & Courtney, J. R. (2008). Effects of crossmodal information on representational momentum and representational gravity. Perception, 37 (supplement), 114.

Hubbard, T. L., & Courtney, J. R. (2008). The onset repulsion effect and motion induced mislocalization of a stationary object. Perception, 37, 1386-1398.

Hubbard, T. L., Kumar, A. M., & Carp, C. L. (2008). Effects of spatial cue timing and relevance on representational momentum. Journal of Vision, 8, 599.

Motes, M. A., Hubbard, T. L., Courtney, J. R., & Rypma, B. (2008). A principal components analysis of dynamic spatial memory biases. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34, 1076-1083.

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2007:

Courtney, J. R., Motes, M. A., & Hubbard, T. L. (2007). Multi- and unisensory visual flash illusions. Perception, 36, 516-524.

Hubbard, T. L., & Kumar, A. M. (2007). Effects of cueing attention on representational momentum. Perception, 36 (supplement), 186.

Hubbard, T. L. (2007). What is mental representation? And how does it relate to consciousness? Journal of Consciousness Studies, 14, 37-61.

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2006:

Hubbard, T. L. (2006). Bridging the gap: Possible roles and contributions of representational momentum. Psicologica, 27, 1-34.

Hubbard, T. L. (2006). Computational theory and cognition in representational momentum and related types of displacement: A reply to Kerzel. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13, 174-177.

Hubbard, T. L. (2006). Representational momentum, flash-lag, and motion capture. In D. E. Kornbrut, R. M. Msetfi, & A. W. MacRae (Eds.), Fechner Day 2006. Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics. St. Albans, UK: The International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 131-136).

Hubbard, T. L. & Courtney, J. R. (2006). Evidence suggestive of separate visual dynamics in perception and in memory. In L. Albertazzi, (Ed.), Visual thought: The depictive space of the mind (pp. 71-98). Amsterdam: Benjamins Publishing Company.

Hubbard, T. L., & Courtney, J. R. (2006). Onset repulsion and onset flash-lag: Effects on a stationary stimulus. Perception, 35 (supplement), 218-219.

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2005:

Hubbard, T. L. (2005). An effect of target orientation on representational momentum. Paideia, 15, 207-216.

Hubbard, T. L. (2005). Representational momentum and related displacements in spatial memory: A review of the findings. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12, 822-851.

Hubbard, T. L. (2005). Representational momentum and the line-motion illusion. Perception, 34 (supplement), 233.

Hubbard, T. L., & Motes, M. A. (2005). An effect of context on whether memory for initial position exhibits a Fröhlich Effect or an Onset Repulsion Effect. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58A, 961-979.

Hubbard, T. L., Ruppel, S. E., & Courtney, J. R. (2005). The force of appearance: Gamma movement, naive impetus, and representational momentum. Psicologica, 26, 209-228.

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2004:

Collier, W. G., & Hubbard, T. L. (2004). Musical scales and brightness evaluations: Effects of pitch, direction, and scale mode. Musicae Scientiae, 8, 151-173.

Hubbard, T. L. (2004). Does representational momentum contribute to the flash-lag effect? Perception, 33 (supplement), 156.

Hubbard, T. L. (2004). The perception of causality: Insights from Michotte's launching effect, naive impetus theory, and representational momentum. In A. M. Oliveira, M.P. Teixeira, G. F. Borges, & M. J. Ferro (Eds.), Fechner Day 2004. Coimbra, Portugal: The International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 116-121).

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2003:

Hubbard, T. L. (2003). Further correspondences and similarities of shamanism and cognitive science: Mental representation, implicit processing, and cognitive structures. Anthropology of Consciousness, 14, 40-74.

Hubbard, T. L., & Favretto, A. (2003). Naive impetus and Michotte's "Tool Effect:" Evidence from representational momentum. Psychological Research/Psychologische Forschung, 67, 134-152.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2003). The force of appearance: Gamma movement, impetus, and representational momentum. Perception, 32 (supplement), 145.

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2002:

Hubbard, T. L. (2002). Mental representation reflects subjective experience: Convergent evidence from imagery and representational momentum. Journal of Mental Imagery, 26, 60-65.

Hubbard, T. L. (2002). Some correspondences and similarities of shamanism and cognitive science: Interconnectedness, extension of meaning, and attribution of mental states. Anthropology of Consciousness, 13, 26-45.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2002). A possible role of naive impetus in Michotte's "Launching Effect:" Evidence from representational momentum. Visual Cognition, 9, 153-176.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2002). Naïve impetus, the launching effect, and representational momentum. Perception, 31 (supplement), 122.

Hubbard, T. L., & Motes, M. A. (2002). Does representational momentum reflect a distortion of the length or the endpoint of a trajectory? Cognition, 82, B89-B99.

Hubbard, T. L., & Motes, M. A. (2002). The Fröhlich effect and the onset repulsion effect. Perception, 31 (supplement), 41.

Hubbard, T. L., & Motes, M. A. (2002). Memory for initial position: A Fröhlich effect or an onset repulsion effect? Journal of Vision, 2, 28.

Thornton, I. M., & Hubbard, T. L. (Eds.). (2002). Representational momentum: New findings, new directions. New York: Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis.

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2001:

Collier, W. G., & Hubbard, T. L. (2001). Judgments of happiness, brightness, speed and tempo change of auditory stimuli varying in pitch and tempo. Psychomusicology, 17, 36-55.

Collier, W. G., & Hubbard, T. L. (2001). Musical scales and happiness/awkwardness evaluations: Effects of pitch, direction, and scale mode. American Journal of Psychology, 114, 355-375.

Hubbard, T. L. (2001). The effect of height in the picture plane on the forward displacement of ascending and descending targets. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 55, 325-330.

Hubbard, T. L. (2001). How consequences of physical principles influence mental representation: Representational momentum and related types of displacement. Perception, 30 (supplement), 102.

Hubbard, T. L., & Blessum, J. A. (2001). A structural dynamic of form: Displacements in memory for the size of an angle. Visual Cognition, 8, 725-749.

Hubbard, T. L., Blessum, J. A., & Ruppel, S. E. (2001). Representational momentum and Michotte's (1946/1963) "Launching Effect" paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27, 294-301.

Hubbard, T. L., & Datteri, D. L. (2001). Recognizing the component tones of a major chord. American Journal of Psychology, 114, 569-589.

Hubbard, T. L., & Motes, M. A. (2001). Does representational momentum reflect a distortion of the length or the endpoint of a trajectory? Perception, 30 (supplement), 105.

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2000:

Favretto, A., & Hubbard, T. L. (2000). Effects of previous and succeeding target presentations on the displacement of memory for target lightness. Perception, 29 (supplement), 19.

Hubbard, T. L., & Favretto, A. (2000). The role of the tool in Michotte's "tool effect:" Evidence from representational momentum. Perception, 29 (supplement), 92.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2000). Spatial memory averaging, the landmark attraction effect, and representational gravity. Psychological Research/Psychologische Forschung, 64,41-55.

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1999:

Favretto, A., Hubbard, T. L., Brandimonte, M. A. & Gerbino, W. (1999). Effects of background luminance on representational momentum for lightness. Perception, 28 (supplement), 77.

Hubbard, T. L. (1999). How consequences of physical principles influence mental representation: The environmental invariants hypothesis. In P. R. Killeen & W. R. Uttal (Eds.), Fechner Day 99: The end of 20th century psychophysics. Proceedings of the 15th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics. Tempe, AZ, USA: The International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 274-279).

Hubbard, T. L., & Favretto, A. (1999). Representational momentum in Michotte's 'launching effect' and 'tool effect' paradigms. Perception, 28 (supplement), 44.

Hubbard, T. L., Matzenbacher, D. L., & Davis, S. E. (1999). Representational momentum in children: Dynamic information and analogue representation. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 88, 910-916.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (1999). Representational momentum and the landmark attraction effect. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 53, 242-256.

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1998:

Bootzin, R. R., Hubbard, T. L., Reiman, E. M., Bandy, D., Yun, L. S., & Munzlinger, T. G. (1998). Brain regions preferentially affected during different stages of sleep and wakefulness: A PET study. Sleep, 21, 272.

Hubbard, T. L. (1998). How consequences of physical principles influence mental representation: The environmental invariants hypothesis. Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Mahweh, NJ: Erlbaum (pp. 1228).

Hubbard, T. L. (1998). Listeners can discriminate among major chord positions. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 87, 891-897.

Hubbard, T. L. (1998). Representational momentum and other displacements in memory as evidence for nonconscious knowledge of physical principles. In S. R. Hameroff, A. W. Kaszniak & A. C. Scott (Eds.), Towards a science of consciousness II: The second Tucson discussions and debates. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press (pp. 505-512).

Hubbard, T. L. (1998). Some effects of representational friction, target size, and memory averaging on memory for vertically moving targets. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 52, 44-49.

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1997:

Hubbard, T. L. (1997). Target size and displacement along the axis of implied gravitational attraction: Effects of implied weight and evidence of representational gravity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 23, 1484-1493.

Hubbard, T. L. (1997). Target size and representational momentum: A re-evaluation of the momentum metaphor. Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Mahweh, NJ: Erlbaum (pp. 953).

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1996:

Hubbard, T. L. (1996). Consciousness and cognition beyond the body: Functionalist cognitive science and the possibility of out-of-body experiences and reincarnation. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 90, 202-220.

Hubbard, T. L. (1996). Displacement in depth: Representational momentum and boundary extension. Psychological Research/Psychologische Forschung, 59, 33-47.

Hubbard, T. L. (1996). Representational momentum and boundary extension: Evidence suggestive of a more general displacement mechanism. Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum (pp. 778).

Hubbard, T. L. (1996). Representational momentum, centripetal force, and curvilinear impetus. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 22, 1049-1060.

Hubbard, T. L. (1996). Synesthesia-like mappings of lightness, pitch, and melodic interval. American Journal of Psychology, 109, 219-238.

Hubbard, T. L. (1996). The importance of a consideration of qualia to imagery and cognition. Consciousness and Cognition, 5, 327-358.

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1995:

Hubbard, T. L. (1995). Auditory representational momentum: Surface form, velocity, and direction effects. American Journal of Psychology, 108, 255-274.

Hubbard, T. L. (1995). Cognitive representation of motion: Evidence for friction and gravity analogues. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 241-254.

Hubbard, T. L. (1995). Environmental invariants in the representation of motion: Implied dynamics and representational momentum, gravity, friction, and centripetal force. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 2, 322-338.

Shames, V. A., & Hubbard, T. L. (1995). Consciousness beyond the comparator. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 18, 697.

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1994:

Hubbard, T. L. (1994). Judged displacement: A modular process? American Journal of Psychology, 107, 359-373.

Hubbard, T. L. (1994). Memory psychophysics. Psychological Research/ Psychologische Forschung, 56, 237-250.

Hubbard, T. L. (1994). Random cognitive activation in dreaming does not require a Cartesian theater. Dreaming, 4, 255-266.

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1993:

Hubbard, T. L. (1993). Artificial intelligence. In F. N. Magill, (Ed.), Survey of the social sciences: Psychology. Pasadena, CA: Salem Press (pp. 299-306).

Hubbard, T. L. (1993). Auditory representational momentum: Musical schemata and modularity. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 31, 201-204.

Hubbard, T. L. (1993). Cross-modality matching in memory psychophysics: Brightness and loudness. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 76, 1339-1357.

Hubbard, T. L. (1993). Logic and reasoning. In F. N. Magill, (Ed.), Survey of the social sciences: Psychology. Pasadena, CA: Salem Press (pp. 1471-1478).

Hubbard, T. L. (1993). Memory and schemata. In F. N. Magill, (Ed.), Survey of the social sciences: Psychology. Pasadena, CA: Salem Press (pp. 1549-1556).

Hubbard, T. L. (1993). The effects of context on visual representational momentum. Memory & Cognition, 21, 103-114.

Hubbard, T. L., & Baird, J. C. (1993). The effects of size, clutter, and complexity on the vanishing point distance in visual imagery. Psychological Research/ Psychologische Forschung, 55, 223-236.

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1992:

Baird, J. C., & Hubbard, T. L. (1992). The psychophysics of visual imagery. In: D. Algom, (Ed.), Psychophysical approaches to cognition. New York: Elsevier (pp. 389-440).

Hubbard, T. L., & Stoeckig, K. (1992). The representation of pitch in musical imagery. In: D. Reisberg, (Ed.), Auditory imagery. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum (pp. 199-235).

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1990:

Hubbard, T. L. (1990). Cognitive representation of linear motion: Possible direction and gravity effects in judged displacement. Memory & Cognition, 18, 299-309.

Hubbard, T. L. (1990). Scientific reduction and the possibility of parapsychology: Parallels from cognitive psychology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 13, 384-385.

Johnson, J., Ettinger, R. H., & Hubbard, T. L. (1990). A long time ago in a computing lab far, far, away... Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 13, 670.

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1989:

Hubbard, T. L., Baird, J. C., & Ajmal, A. (1989). Different skills or different knowledge? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 12, 86-87.

Hubbard, T. L., Kall, D., & Baird, J. C. (1989). Imagery, memory, and size-distance invariance. Memory & Cognition, 17, 87-94.

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1988:

Hubbard, T. L., & Baird, J. C. (1988). Overflow, first-sight, and vanishing point distances in visual imagery. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 14, 641-649.

Hubbard, T. L., & Bharucha, J. J. (1988). Judged displacement in apparent vertical and horizontal motion. Perception & Psychophysics, 44, 211-221.

Hubbard, T. L., & Stoeckig, K. (1988). Musical imagery: Generation of tones and chords. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 14, 656-667.

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timothyhubbard.net/hubpub.html -- Revised 21 November 2019
Copyright © Timothy Hubbard
timothyleehubbard@gmail.com