Momentum-Like Effects

(last update: April 8, 2016)

Memory for the final location of a moving target is usually displaced in the direction of anticipated future target motion, and this mislocalization has been referred to as representational momentum. Reviews of the empirical literature on representational momentum can be found in Hubbard (2005, 2014).

Representational momentum has recently been linked to a variety of other momentum-like effects, and these include operational momentum, attentional momentum, behavioral momentum, and psychological momentum. Operational momentum and attentional momentum are reviewed by Hubbard (2014) in Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, and behavioral momentum and psychological momentum are reviewed by Hubbard (2015) in Journal of Mind and Behavior. A comparison of all of five types of momentum-like effects can be found in Hubbard (2015) in Psychological Bulletin.

Previous versions of this page were entitled "Representation Momentum Bibiliography," but the listings have been expanded to include all five types of momentum-like effects.

Comments, contributions, and suggestions for additions should be sent to timothyleehubbard@gmail.com.

Clicking on a letter below will jump to the section of the bibliography containing papers in which the first author's last name begins with that letter.


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


Actis-Grosso, R., Bastianelli, A., & Stucchi, N. (2008). Direction of perceptual displacement of a moving target's starting and vanishing points: The key role of velocity. Japanese Psychological Research, 50, 253-263.

Actis Grosso, R., & Stucchi, N. (2003). Shifting the start: Backward mislocalization of the initial position of a motion. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 29, 675-691.

Actis Grosso, R., Stucchi, N., & Vicario, G. B. (1996). On the length of trajectories for moving dots. In S. C. Masin (Ed.), Fechner Day 1996: Proceedings of the Twelfth Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics. Padua, IT: The International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 185-190).

Adams, R. M. (1995). Momentum in the performance of professional pocket billiards players. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 26,580-587.

Ahearn, W. H., Clark, K. M., Gardenier, N. C., Chung, B. I., & Dube, W. V. (2003). Persistence of stereotypic behavior: Examining the effects of external reinforcers. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 36, 439-448.

Amorim, M. A., Lang, W., Lindinger, G., Mayer, D., Deecke, L., & Berthoz, A. (2000). Modulation of spatial orientation by mental imagery: A MEG study of representational momentum. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 12, 569-582.

Arantes, J., Berg, M. E., Le, D., & Grace, R. C. (2012). Resistance to change and preference for variable versus fixed response sequences. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 98, 1-21.

Ashida, H. (2004). Action-specific extrapolation of target motion in human visual system. Neuropsychologia, 42, 1515-1524.

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Babcock, M. K., & Freyd, J. J. (1988). Perception of dynamic information in static handwritten forms. American Journal of Psychology, 101, 111-130.

Barnes, J., Howard, R., Senior, C., Brammer, M., Bullmore, E., Giampietro, V., Simmons, A., Woodruff, P., & David, A.S. (1999). Cortical activity during the perception and imagery of rotational and linear motion. Neuroimage, 9, s374.

Belfiore, P. J., Basile, S. P., & Lee, D. L. (2008). Using a high probability command sequence to increase classroom compliance: The role of behavioral momentum. Journal of Behavioral Education, 17, 160-171.

Belfiore, P. J., Lee, D. L., Scheeler, M. C., & Klein, D. (2002). Implications of behavioral momentum and academic achievement for students with behavior disorders: Theory, application, and practice. Psychology in the Schools, 39, 171-179.

Bertamini, M. (1993). Memory for position and dynamic representations. Memory & Cognition, 21, 449-457.

Bertamini, M. (2002). Representational momentum, internalized dynamics, and perceptual adaptation. Visual Cognition, 9, 195-216.

Blattler, C., Ferrari, V., Didierjean, A., van Elslande, P., & Marmeche, E. (2010). Can expertise modulate representational momentum? Visual Cognition, 18, 1253-1273.

Blattler, C., Ferrari, V., Didierjean, A., & Marmeche, E. (2011). Representational momentum in aviation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 37, 1569-1577.

Brehaut, J. C., & Tipper, S. P. (1996). Representational momentum and memory for luminance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 22, 480-501.

Briki, W., den Hartigh, R. J. R., Markman, K. D., & Gernigon, C. (2014). How do supporters perceive positive and negative psychological momentum changes during a simulated cycling competition? Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15, 216-221.

Briki, W., Doron, J., Markman, K. D., den Hartigh, R. J. R., & Gernigon, C. (2014). Differential reactions of virtual actors and observers to the triggering and interruption of psychological momentum. Motivation and Emotion, 38, 263-269.

Brouwer, A. M., Franz, V. H., & Thornton, I. M. (2004). Representational momentum in perception and grasping: Translating versus transforming object. Journal of Vision, 4, 575-584.

Brouwer, A. M., Thornton, I. M., & Franz, V. H. (2005). Forward displacement in grasping and visually judging pliers. Visual Cognition, 12, 800-816

Brown, T. A., & Munger, M. P. (2010). Representational momentum, spatial layout, and viewpoint dependency. Visual Cognition, 18, 780-800.

Burke, K. L., Edwards, T. C., Weigand, D. A., & Weinberg, R. S. (1997). Momentum in sport: A real or illusory phenomenon for spectators. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 28, 79-96.

Burns, M. K., Ardoin, S. P., Parker, D. C., Hodgson, J., Klingbeil, D. A., & Scholin, S. E. (2009). Interspersal technique and behavioral momentum for reading word lists. School Psychology Review, 38, 428-434.

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Charras, P., Brod, G., & Lupiáñez, J. (2012). Is 26 + 26 smaller than 24 + 28? Estimating the approximate magnitude of repeated versus different numbers. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 74, 163-173.

Charras, P., Molina, E., & Lupiáñez, J. (2014). Additions are biased by operands: Evidence from repeated versus different operands. Psychological Research, 78, 248-265.

Chien, S. E., Ono, F., & Watanabe, K. (2013). A transient auditory signal shifts the perceived offset position of a moving visual object. Frontiers in Psychology, 4:70. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00070

Choi, H., & Scholl, B. J. (2006). Measuring causal perception: Links to representational momentum? Acta Psychologica, 123, 91-111.

Cohen, S. L. (1998). Behavioral momentum: The effects of the temporal separation of rates of reinforcement. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 69, 29-47.

Cohen, S. L., Riley, D. S., & Weigle, P. A. (1993). Tests of behavior momentum in simple and multiple schedules with rats and pigeons. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 60, 255-291.

Conners, F. A., Wyatt, B. S., & Dulaney, C. L. (1998). Cognitive representation of motion in individuals with mental retardation. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 102, 438-450.

Cooper, L. A., & Munger, M. P. (1993). Extrapolations and remembering positions along cognitive trajectories: Uses and limitations of analogies to physical momentum. In N. Eilen, R. McCarthy, & B. Brewer (Eds.), Spatial representation: Problems in philosophy and psychology. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.

Cornelius, A. E., Silva, J. M., III, Conroy, D. E., & Petersen, G. (1997). The projected performance model: Relating cognitive and performance antecedents of psychological momentum. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 84, 475-485.

Courtney, J. R., & Hubbard, T. L. (2008). Spatial memory and explicit knowledge: An effect of instruction on representational momentum. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61, 1778-1784.

Crollen, V., & Seron, X. (2012). Over-estimation in numerosity estimation tasks: More than an attentional bias? Acta Psychologica, 140, 246-251.

Crust, L., & Nesti, M. (2006). A review of psychological momentum in sports: Why qualitative research is needed. Athletic Insight: The Online Journal of Sport Psychology, 8, 1-15.

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DeLucia, P. R., & Maldia, M. M. (2006). Visual memory for moving scenes. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 59(2), 340-360.

de sá Teixeira, N. A. (2014). Fourier decomposition of spatial localization errors reveals an idiotropic dominance of an internal model of gravity. Vision Research, 105, 177-188.

de sá Teixeira, N. A., & Hecht, H. (2014). Can representational trajectory reveal the nature of an internal model of gravity? Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 76, 1106-1120.

de sá Teixeira, N. A., Hecht, H., & Oliveira, A. M. (2013). The representational dynamics of remembered projectile locations. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 39, 1690-1699.

de sá Teixeira, N. A., & Oliveira, A. M. (2007). An information integration approach to perception of causality through continuous behavioural measures. In S. Mori, T. Miyaoka, & W. Wong (Eds.), Fechner Day 2007: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics. Tokyo, Japan: The International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 487-492).

de sá Teixeira, N. A., & Oliveira, A. M. (2007). The measurement of causal perception through memory displacement: Is all passing a non-causal event? In S. Mori, T. Miyaoka, & W. Wong (Eds.), Fechner Day 2007: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics. Tokyo, Japan: The International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 493-498).

de sá Teixeira, N. A., & Oliveira, A. M. (2011). Disambiguating the effects of target travelled distance and target vanishing point upon representational momentum. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 23, 650-658.

de sá Teixeira, N. A., de Oliveira, A. M., & Amorim, M-A. (2010). Combined effects of mass and velocity on forward displacement and phenomenological ratings: A functional measurement approach to the momentum metaphor. Psicologica, 31, 659-676.

de sá Teixeira, N. A., de Oliveira, A. M., & Viegas, R. (2008). Functional approach to the integration of kinematic and dynamic variables in causal perception: Is there a link between phenomenology and behavioral responses? Japanese Psychological Research, 50, 232-241.

de sá Teixeira, N. A., Pimenta, S., & Raposo, V. (2013). A null effect of target's velocity in the visual representation of motion with schizophrenic patients. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 122, 223-230.

de sá Teixeira, N. A., & de Oliveira, A. M. (2014). Spatial and foveal biases, not perceived mass or heaviness, explain the effect of target size on representational momentum and representational gravity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 40, 1664-79.

Desmurget, M., & Sirigu, A. (2009). A parietal-premotor network for movement intention and motor awareness. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13, 411-419.

Dube, W. V., Ahearn, W. H., Lionello-Denolf, K., & McIlvane, W. J. (2009). Behavioral momentum: Translational research in intellectual and developmental disabilities. The Behavior Analyst Today, 10, 238-253.

Dube, W. W., & McIlvane, W. J. (2001). Behavioral momentum in computer-presented discriminations in individuals with severe mental retardation. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 75, 15- 23.

Dube, W. V., McIlvane, W. J., Mazzitelli, K., & McNamara, B. (2003). Reinforcer rate effects and behavioral momentum in individuals with developmental disabilities. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 108, 134-143.

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Eisler, L., & Spink, K. S. (1998). Effects of scoring configuration and task cohesion on the perception of psychological momentum. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 20, 311-320.

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Faust, M. (1990). Representational momentum: A dual process perspective. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon.

Favretto, A. & Hubbard, T. L. (2000). Effects of previous and succeeding target presentations on the displacement of memory for target lightness. Perception, 29 (supplement), 19.

Favretto, A., Hubbard, T. L., Brandimonte, M. A., & Gerbino, W. (1999). Effects of background luminance on representational momentum for lightness. Perception, 28 (supplement), 77.

Feather, N. T. (1966). Effects of prior success and failure on expectations of success and subsequent performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3, 287-298.

Feather, N. T. (1968). Change in confidence following success or failure as a predictor of subsequent performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 9, 38-46.

Feather, N. T., & Saville, M. R. (1967). Effects of amount of prior success and failure on expectations of success and subsequent task performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5, 226-232.

Feinkohl, A., Locke, S. M., Leung, J., & Carlile, S. (2014). The effect of velocity on auditory representational momentum. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 136, EL20-EL25.

Finke, R. A., & Freyd, J. J. (1985). Transformations of visual memory induced by implied motions of pattern elements. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 11, 780-794.

Finke, R. A., & Freyd, J. J. (1989). Mental extrapolation and cognitive penetrability: Reply to Ranney and proposals for evaluative criteria. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 118, 403-408.

Finke, R. A., Freyd, J. J., & Shyi, G. C. W. (1986). Implied velocity and acceleration induce transformations of visual memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 115, 175-188.

Finke, R. A., & Shyi, G. C. W. (1988). Mental extrapolation and representational momentum for complex implied motions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 14, 112-120.

Foster, D. H., & Gravano, S. (1982). Overshoot of curvature in visual apparent motion. Perception & Psychophysics, 31, 411-420.

Freyd, J. J. (1983). The mental representation of movement when static stimuli are viewed. Perception & Psychophysics, 33, 575-581.

Freyd, J. J. (1987). Dynamic mental representations. Psychological Review, 94, 427-438.

Freyd, J. J. (1992). Dynamic representations guiding adaptive behavior. In F. Macar, V. Pouthas, & W. J. Friedman (eds.). Time, action, and cognition: Towards bridging the gap. Dordrecht: Kluver Academic Publishers (pp. 309-323).

Freyd, J. J. (1993). Five hunches about perceptual processes and dynamic representations. In D. Meyer & S. Kornblum (eds.), Attention and performance XIV: Synergies in experimental psychology, artificial intelligence, and cognitive neuroscience. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Freyd, J. J., & Finke, R. A. (1984). Representational momentum. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 10, 126-132.

Freyd, J. J., & Finke, R. A. (1985). A velocity effect for representational momentum. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 23, 443-446.

Freyd, J. J., & Johnson, J. Q. (1987). Probing the time course of representational momentum. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 13, 259-269.

Freyd, J. J., & Jones, K. T. (1994). Representational momentum for a spiral path. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 20, 968-976.

Freyd, J. J., Kelly, M. H., & DeKay, M. L. (1990). Representational momentum in memory for pitch. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 16, 1107-1117.

Freyd, J. J., & Pantzer, T. M. (1995). Static patterns moving in the mind. In S. M. Smith, T. B. Ward, & R. A. Finke (Eds.). The creative cognition approach. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press (pp. 181-204).

Freyd, J. J., Pantzer, T. M., & Cheng, J. L. (1988). Representing statics as forces in equilibrium. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 117, 395-407.

Fu, Y. X., Shen, Y., & Dan, Y. (2001). Motion-induced perceptual extrapolation of blurred visual targets. Journal of Neuroscience, 21, RC172.

Futterweit, L. R., & Beilin, H. (1994). Recognition memory for movement in photographs: A developmental study. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 57, 163-179.

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Gernigon, C., Briki, W., & Eykens, K. (2010). The dynamics of psychological momentum in sport: The role of ongoing history of performance patterns. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 32, 377-400.

Getzmann, S. (2005). Representational momentum in spatial hearing does not depend on eye movements. Experimental Brain Research, 165, 229-238.

Getzmann, S., & Lewald, J. (2007). Localization of moving sound. Perception & Psychophysics, 69, 1022-1034.

Getzmann, S., & Lewald, J. (2009). Constancy of target velocity as a critical factor in the emergence of auditory and visual representational momentum. Experimental Brain Research, 193, 437443.

Getzmann, S., Lewald, J., & Guski, R. (2004). Representational momentum in spatial hearing. Perception, 33, 591-599.

Gilis, B., Helsen, W., Catteeuw, P., Wagemans, J. (2008). Offside decisions by expert assistant referees in association football: Perception and recall of spatial positions in complex dynamic events. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 14, 21-35.

Gottwald, V. M., Lawrence, G. P., Hayes, A. E., & Khan, M. A. (2015). Representational momentum reveals visual anticipation differences in the upper and lower visual fields. Experimental Brain Research, 233, 2249-2256.

Gray, R., & Thornton, I. M. (2001). Exploring the link between time to collision and representational momentum. Perception, 30, 1007-1022.

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Halpern, A. R., & Kelly, M. H. (1993). Memory biases in left versus right implied motion. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 19, 471-484.

Hamberger, M., & Iso-Ahola, S. E. (2004). Psychological momentum and athletic performance: A critical review of research. Journal of Contemporary Athletics, 1, 207-226.

Hayes, A. E., & Freyd, J. J. (2002). Representational momentum when attention is divided. Visual Cognition, 9, 8-27.

Hayes, A., Sacher, G., Thornton, I. M., Sereno, M. E., & Freyd, J. J. (1996). Representational Momentum in Depth Using Stereopsis. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 37(Supp. 3).

Hayes, A. E., & Thornton, I. M. (1999). Are we "lost in space" during ego-motion? Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Supp., 40(4), 4212.

Hidaka, S., Kawachi, Y., & Gyoba, J. (2009). The representation of moving 3-D objects in apparent motion perception. Attention, Perception, & Performance, 71, 1294-1304.

Hirose, N., & Osaka, N. (2010). Asymmetry in object substitution masking occurs relative to the direction of spatial attention shift. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 36, 25-37.

Hubbard, T. L. (1990). Cognitive representation of linear motion: Possible direction and gravity effects in judged displacement. Memory & Cognition, 18, 299-309.

Hubbard, T. L. (1993). Auditory representational momentum: Musical schemata and modularity. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 31, 201-204.

Hubbard, T. L. (1993). The effects of context on visual representational momentum. Memory & Cognition, 21, 103-114.

Hubbard, T. L. (1994). Judged displacement: A modular process? American Journal of Psychology, 107, 359-373.

Hubbard, T. L. (1995). Auditory representational momentum: Surface form, velocity, and direction effects. American Journal of Psychology, 108, 255-274.

Hubbard, T. L. (1995). Cognitive representation of motion: Evidence for friction and gravity analogues. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 241-254.

Hubbard, T. L. (1995). Environmental invariants in the representation of motion: Implied dynamics and representational momentum, gravity, friction, and centripetal force. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 2, 322-338.

Hubbard, T. L. (1996). Displacement in depth: Representational momentum and boundary extension. Psychological Research/Psychologische Forschung, 59, 33-47.

Hubbard, T. L. (1996). Representational momentum and boundary extension: Evidence suggestive of a more general displacement mechanism. Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum (pp. 778).

Hubbard, T. L. (1996). Representational momentum, centripetal force, and curvilinear impetus. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 22, 1049-1060.

Hubbard, T. L. (1997). Target size and displacement along the axis of implied gravitational attraction: Effects of implied weight and evidence of representational gravity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 23, 1484-1493.

Hubbard, T. L. (1997). Target size and representational momentum: A re-evaluation of the momentum metaphor. Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Mahweh, NJ: Erlbaum (pp. 953).

Hubbard, T. L. (1998). How consequences of physical principles influence mental representation: The environmental invariants hypothesis. Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Mahweh, NJ: Erlbaum (pp. 1228).

Hubbard, T. L. (1998). Representational momentum and other displacements in memory as evidence for nonconscious knowledge of physical principles. In S. Hameroff, A. Kaszniak & A. Scott (Eds.), Towards a science of consciousness II: The 1996 Tucson discussions and debates. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Hubbard, T. L. (1998). Some effects of representational friction, target size, and memory averaging on memory for vertically moving targets. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 52, 44-49.

Hubbard, T. L. (1999). How consequences of physical principles influence mental representation: The environmental invariants hypothesis. In P. R. Killeen & W. R. Uttal (Eds.). Fechner Day 99: The end of 20th century psychophysics. Proceedings of the 15th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics. Tempe, AZ, USA: The International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 274-279).

Hubbard, T. L. (2001). The effect of height in the picture plane on the forward displacement of ascending and descending targets. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 55, 325-330.

Hubbard, T. L. (2002). Mental representation reflects subjective experience: Convergent evidence from imagery and representational momentum. Journal of Mental Imagery, 26, 60-65.

Hubbard, T. L. (2004). The perception of causality: Insights from Michotte's launching effect, naive impetus theory, and representational momentum. In A. M. Oliveira, M.P. Teixeira, G. F. Borges, & M. J. Ferro (Eds.). Fechner Day 2004. Coimbra, Portugal: The International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 116-121.

Hubbard, T. L. (2005). An effect of target orientation on representational momentum. Paideia, 15, 207-216.

Hubbard, T. L. (2005). Representational momentum and related displacements in spatial memory: A review of the findings. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. 12, 822-851.

Hubbard, T. L. (2006). Bridging the gap: Possible roles and contributions of representational momentum. Psicologica, 27, 1-34.

Hubbard, T. L. (2006). Computational theory and cognition in representational momentum and related types of displacement: A reply to Kerzel. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13, 174-177.

Hubbard, T. L. (2006). Representational momentum, flash-lag, and motion capture. In D. E. Kornbrut, R. M. Msetfi, & A. W. MacRae (Eds.). Fechner Day 2006. Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics. St. Albans, UK: The International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 131-136).

Hubbard, T. L. (2008). Representational momentum as a new Gestalt principle. In B. A. Schneider, B. M. Ben-David, S. Parker, & W. Wong (Eds.), Fechner Day 2008. Proceedings of the 24th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 333-338). Toronto, ON: The International Society for Psychophysics.

Hubbard, T. L. (2008). Representational momentum contributes to motion induced mislocalization of stationary objects. Visual Cognition, 16, 44-67.

Hubbard, T. L. (2010). Approaches to representational momentum: Theories and models. In R. Nijhawan & B. Khurana (Eds.), Space and time in perception and action (pp. 338-365). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Hubbard, T. L. (2011). Extending pragnanz: Dynamic aspects of mental representation and Gestalt principles. In L. Albertazzi, G. J. van Tonder, & D. Vishwanath (Eds.), Perception beyond inference: The information content of visual processes (pp. 75-108). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Hubbard, T. L. (2013). Do the flash-lag effect and representational momentum involve similar extrapolations? Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 290. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00290.

Hubbard, T. L. (2013). Launching, entraining, and representational momentum: Evidence consistent with an impetus heuristic in perception of causality. Axiomathes, 23, 633-643.

Hubbard, T. L. (2014). Forms of momentum across space: Representational, operational, and attentional. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 1371-1403.

Hubbard, T. L. (2015). Forms of momentum across time: Behavioral and psychological. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 36, 47-82.

Hubbard, T. L. (2015). The varieties of momentum-like experience. Psychological Bulletin, 141, 1081-1119.

Hubbard, T. L., & Bharucha, J. J. (1988). Judged displacement in apparent vertical and horizontal motion. Perception & Psychophysics, 44, 211-221.

Hubbard, T. L., & Blessum, J. A. (2001). A structural dynamic of form: Displacements in memory for the size of an angle. Visual Cognition, 8, 725-749.

Hubbard, T. L., Blessum, J. A., & Ruppel, S. E. (2001). Representational momentum and Michotte's (1946/1963) "Launching Effect" paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27, 294-301.

Hubbard, T. L. & Courtney, J. R. (2006). Evidence suggestive of separate visual dynamics in perception and in memory. In L. Albertazzi, (Ed.). Visual thought: The depictive space of the mind (pp. 71-98). Amsterdam: Benjamins Publishing Company.

Hubbard, T. L., & Courtney, J. R. (2008). The onset repulsion effect and motion induced mislocalization of a stationary object. Perception, 37, 1386-1398.

Hubbard, T. L., & Courtney, J. R. (2010). Cross-modal influences on representational momentum and representational gravity. Perception, 39, 851-862.

Hubbard, T. L., & Favretto, A. (2003). Naive impetus and Michotte's "Tool Effect:" Evidence from representational momentum. Psychological Research/Psychologische Forschung, 67, 134-152.

Hubbard, T. L., Hutchison, J. L., & Courtney, J. R. (2010). Boundary extension: Findings and theories. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63, 1467-1494.

Hubbard, T. L., Kumar, A. M., & Carp, C. L. (2009). Effects of spatial cueing on representational momentum. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 35, 666-677.

Hubbard, T. L., & Lange, M. (2010). Prior probabilities and representational momentum. Visual Cognition, 18, 1063-1087.

Hubbard, T. L., Matzenbacher, D. L., & Davis, S. E. (1999). Representational momentum in children: Dynamic information and analogue representation. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 88, 910-916.

Hubbard, T. L., & Motes, M. A. (2002). Does representational momentum reflect a distortion of the length or the endpoint of a trajectory? Cognition, 82, B89-B99.

Hubbard, T. L., & Motes, M. A. (2005). An effect of context on whether memory for initial position exhibits a Fröhlich Effect or an Onset Repulsion Effect. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58A, 961-979.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (1999). Representational momentum and landmark attraction effects. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 53, 242-256.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2000). Spatial memory averaging, the landmark attraction effect, and representational gravity. Psychological Research/Psychologische Forschung, 64, 41-55.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2002). A possible role of naïve impetus in Michotte's "launching effect": Evidence from representational momentum. Visual Cognition, 9, 153-176.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2011). Effects of spatial cuing on the onset repulsion effect. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 73, 2236-2248.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2013). Displacement of location in illusory line motion. Psychological Research/Psychologische Forschung, 77, 260-276.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2013). A Fröhlich effect and representational gravity in memory for auditory pitch. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 39, 1153-1164.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2014). An effect of contrast and luminance on visual representational momentum for location. Perception, 43, 754-766.

Hubbard, T. L., Ruppel, S. E., & Courtney, J. R. (2005). The force of appearance: Gamma motion, impetus, and representational momentum. Psicologica, 26, 209-228.

Hudson, M., & Jellema, T. (2011). Resolving ambiguous behavioral intentions by means of involuntary prioritization of gaze processing. Emotion, 11, 681-686.

Hudson, M., Liu, C. H., & Jellema, T. (2009). Anticipating intentional actions: The effect of eye gaze direction on the judgment of head rotation. Cognition, 112, 423-434.

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