Representational Momentum Bibliography

(last update: February 11, 2014)

Memory for the final location of a moving target is usually displaced in the direction of anticipated future target motion, and this mislocalization has been referred to as representational momentum. A review of the empirical literature can be found in Hubbard (2005).

This page is intended as a general clearing-house for information on representational momentum (and related topics of attentional momentum and operational momentum). Previous versions of this page included references for additional effects and dynamics, but those have been deleted from this page and will be placed in other specialized bibliographies that are currently under development.

Comments, contributions, and suggestions for additions should be sent to timothyleehubbard@gmail.com.

Clicking on a letter below will jump to the section of the bibliography containing papers in which the first author's last name begins with that letter.


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


Actis-Grosso, R., Bastianelli, A., & Stucchi, N. (2008). Direction of perceptual displacement of a moving target's starting and vanishing points: The key role of velocity. Japanese Psychological Research, 50, 253-263.

Actis Grosso, R., & Stucchi, N. (2003). Shifting the start: Backward mislocalization of the initial position of a motion. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 29, 675-691.

Actis Grosso, R., Stucchi, N., & Vicario, G. B. (1996). On the length of trajectories for moving dots. In S. C. Masin (Ed.), Fechner Day 1996: Proceedings of the Twelfth Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics. Padua, IT: The International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 185-190).

Amorim, M. A., Lang, W., Lindinger, G., Mayer, D., Deecke, L., & Berthoz, A. (2000). Modulation of spatial orientation by mental imagery: A MEG study of representational momentum. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 12, 569-582.

Ashida, H. (2004). Action-specific extrapolation of target motion in human visual system. Neuropsychologia, 42, 1515-1524.

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Babcock, M. K., & Freyd, J. J. (1988). Perception of dynamic information in static handwritten forms. American Journal of Psychology, 101, 111-130.

Barnes, J., Howard, R., Senior, C., Brammer, M., Bullmore, E., Giampietro, V., Simmons, A., Woodruff, P., & David, A.S. (1999). Cortical activity during the perception and imagery of rotational and linear motion. Neuroimage, 9, s374.

Bertamini, M. (1993). Memory for position and dynamic representations. Memory & Cognition, 21, 449-457.

Bertamini, M. (2002). Representational momentum, internalized dynamics, and perceptual adaptation. Visual Cognition, 9, 195-216.

Blattler, C., Ferrari, V., Didierjean, A., van Elslande, P., & Marmeche, E. (2010). Can expertise modulate representational momentum? Visual Cognition, 18, 1253-1273.

Blattler, C., Ferrari, V., Didierjean, A., & Marmeche, E. (2011). Representational momentum in aviation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 37, 1569-1577.

Brehaut, J. C., & Tipper, S. P. (1996). Representational momentum and memory for luminance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 22, 480-501.

Brouwer, A. M., Franz, V. H., & Thornton, I. M. (2004). Representational momentum in perception and grasping: Translating versus transforming object. Journal of Vision, 4, 575-584.

Brouwer, A. M., Thornton, I. M., & Franz, V. H. (2005). Forward displacement in grasping and visually judging pliers. Visual Cognition, 12, 800-816

Brown, T. A., & Munger, M. P. (2010). Representational momentum, spatial layout, and viewpoint dependency. Visual Cognition, 18, 780-800.

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Chien, S. E., Ono, F., & Watanabe, K. (2013). A transient auditory signal shifts the perceived offset position of a moving visual object. Frontiers in Psychology, 4:70. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00070

Choi, H., & Scholl, B. J. (2006). Measuring causal perception: Links to representational momentum? Acta Psychologica, 123, 91 - 111.

Conners, F. A., Wyatt, B. S., & Dulaney, C. L. (1998). Cognitive representation of motion in individuals with mental retardation. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 102, 438-450.

Cooper, L. A., & Munger, M. P. (1993). Extrapolations and remembering positions along cognitive trajectories: Uses and limitations of analogies to physical momentum. In N. Eilen, R. McCarthy, & B. Brewer (Eds.), Spatial representation: Problems in philosophy and psychology. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.

Courtney, J. R., & Hubbard, T. L. (2008). Spatial memory and explicit knowledge: An effect of instruction on representational momentum. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61, 1778-1784.

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DeLucia, P. R., & Maldia, M. M. (2006). Visual memory for moving scenes. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 59(2), 340-360.

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Faust, M. (1990). Representational momentum: A dual process perspective. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon.

Favretto, A. & Hubbard, T. L. (2000). Effects of previous and succeeding target presentations on the displacement of memory for target lightness. Perception, 29 (supplement), 19.

Favretto, A., Hubbard, T. L., Brandimonte, M. A., & Gerbino, W. (1999). Effects of background luminance on representational momentum for lightness. Perception, 28 (supplement), 77.

Finke, R. A., & Freyd, J. J. (1985). Transformations of visual memory induced by implied motions of pattern elements. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 11, 780-794.

Finke, R. A., & Freyd, J. J. (1989). Mental extrapolation and cognitive penetrability: Reply to Ranney and proposals for evaluative criteria. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 118, 403-408.

Finke, R. A., Freyd, J. J., & Shyi, G. C. W. (1986). Implied velocity and acceleration induce transformations of visual memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 115, 175-188.

Finke, R. A., & Shyi, G. C. W. (1988). Mental extrapolation and representational momentum for complex implied motions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 14, 112-120.

Foster, D. H., & Gravano, S. (1982). Overshoot of curvature in visual apparent motion. Perception & Psychophysics, 31, 411-420.

Freyd, J. J. (1983). The mental representation of movement when static stimuli are viewed. Perception & Psychophysics, 33, 575-581.

Freyd, J. J. (1987). Dynamic mental representations. Psychological Review, 94, 427-438.

Freyd, J. J. (1992). Dynamic representations guiding adaptive behavior. In F. Macar, V. Pouthas, & W. J. Friedman (eds.). Time, action, and cognition: Towards bridging the gap. Dordrecht: Kluver Academic Publishers (pp. 309-323).

Freyd, J. J. (1993). Five hunches about perceptual processes and dynamic representations. In D. Meyer & S. Kornblum (eds.), Attention and performance XIV: Synergies in experimental psychology, artificial intelligence, and cognitive neuroscience. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Freyd, J. J., & Finke, R. A. (1984). Representational momentum. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 10, 126-132.

Freyd, J. J., & Finke, R. A. (1985). A velocity effect for representational momentum. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 23, 443-446.

Freyd, J. J., & Johnson, J. Q. (1987). Probing the time course of representational momentum. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 13, 259-269.

Freyd, J. J., & Jones, K. T. (1994). Representational momentum for a spiral path. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 20, 968-976.

Freyd, J. J., Kelly, M. H., & DeKay, M. L. (1990). Representational momentum in memory for pitch. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 16, 1107-1117.

Freyd, J. J., & Pantzer, T. M. (1995). Static patterns moving in the mind. In S. M. Smith, T. B. Ward, & R. A. Finke (Eds.). The creative cognition approach. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press (pp. 181-204).

Freyd, J. J., Pantzer, T. M., & Cheng, J. L. (1988). Representing statics as forces in equilibrium. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 117, 395-407.

Fu, Y. X., Shen, Y., & Dan, Y. (2001). Motion-induced perceptual extrapolation of blurred visual targets. Journal of Neuroscience, 21, RC172.

Futterweit, L. R., & Beilin, H. (1994). Recognition memory for movement in photographs: A developmental study. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 57, 163-179.

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Getzmann, S. (2005). Representational momentum in spatial hearing does not depend on eye movements. Experimental Brain Research, 165, 229-238.

Getzmann, S., & Lewald, J. (2007). Localization of moving sound. Perception & Psychophysics, 69, 1022-1034.

Getzmann, S., & Lewald, J. (2009). Constancy of target velocity as a critical factor in the emergence of auditory and visual representational momentum. Experimental Brain Research, 193, 437443.

Getzmann, S., Lewald, J., & Guski, R. (2004). Representational momentum in spatial hearing. Perception, 33, 591-599.

Gilis, B., Helsen, W., Catteeuw, P., Wagemans, J. (2008). Offside decisions by expert assistant referees in association football: Perception and recall of spatial positions in complex dynamic events. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 14, 21-35.

Gray, R., & Thornton, I. M. (2001). Exploring the link between time to collision and representational momentum. Perception, 30, 1007-1022.

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Halpern, A. R., & Kelly, M. H. (1993). Memory biases in left versus right implied motion. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 19, 471-484.

Hayes, A. E., & Freyd, J. J. (2002). Representational momentum when attention is divided. Visual Cognition, 9, 8-27.

Hayes, A., Sacher, G., Thornton, I. M., Sereno, M. E., & Freyd, J. J. (1996). Representational Momentum in Depth Using Stereopsis. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 37(Supp. 3).

Hayes, A. E., & Thornton, I. M. (1999). Are we "lost in space" during ego-motion? Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Supp., 40(4), 4212.

Hidaka, S., Kawachi, Y., & Gyoba, J. (2009). The representation of moving 3-D objects in apparent motion perception. Attention, Perception, & Performance, 71, 1294-1304.

Hirose, N., & Osaka, N. (2010). Asymmetry in object substitution masking occurs relative to the direction of spatial attention shift. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 36, 25-37.

Hubbard, T. L. (1990). Cognitive representation of linear motion: Possible direction and gravity effects in judged displacement. Memory & Cognition, 18, 299-309.

Hubbard, T. L. (1993). Auditory representational momentum: Musical schemata and modularity. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 31, 201-204.

Hubbard, T. L. (1993). The effects of context on visual representational momentum. Memory & Cognition, 21, 103-114.

Hubbard, T. L. (1994). Judged displacement: A modular process? American Journal of Psychology, 107, 359-373.

Hubbard, T. L. (1995). Auditory representational momentum: Surface form, velocity, and direction effects. American Journal of Psychology, 108, 255-274.

Hubbard, T. L. (1995). Cognitive representation of motion: Evidence for friction and gravity analogues. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 241-254.

Hubbard, T. L. (1995). Environmental invariants in the representation of motion: Implied dynamics and representational momentum, gravity, friction, and centripetal force. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 2, 322-338.

Hubbard, T. L. (1996). Displacement in depth: Representational momentum and boundary extension. Psychological Research/Psychologische Forschung, 59, 33-47.

Hubbard, T. L. (1996). Representational momentum and boundary extension: Evidence suggestive of a more general displacement mechanism. Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum (pp. 778).

Hubbard, T. L. (1996). Representational momentum, centripetal force, and curvilinear impetus. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 22, 1049-1060.

Hubbard, T. L. (1997). Target size and displacement along the axis of implied gravitational attraction: Effects of implied weight and evidence of representational gravity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 23, 1484-1493.

Hubbard, T. L. (1997). Target size and representational momentum: A re-evaluation of the momentum metaphor. Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Mahweh, NJ: Erlbaum (pp. 953).

Hubbard, T. L. (1998). How consequences of physical principles influence mental representation: The environmental invariants hypothesis. Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Mahweh, NJ: Erlbaum (pp. 1228).

Hubbard, T. L. (1998). Representational momentum and other displacements in memory as evidence for nonconscious knowledge of physical principles. In S. Hameroff, A. Kaszniak & A. Scott (Eds.), Towards a science of consciousness II: The 1996 Tucson discussions and debates. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Hubbard, T. L. (1998). Some effects of representational friction, target size, and memory averaging on memory for vertically moving targets. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 52, 44-49.

Hubbard, T. L. (1999). How consequences of physical principles influence mental representation: The environmental invariants hypothesis. In P. R. Killeen & W. R. Uttal (Eds.). Fechner Day 99: The end of 20th century psychophysics. Proceedings of the 15th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics. Tempe, AZ, USA: The International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 274-279).

Hubbard, T. L. (2001). The effect of height in the picture plane on the forward displacement of ascending and descending targets. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 55, 325-330.

Hubbard, T. L. (2002). Mental representation reflects subjective experience: Convergent evidence from imagery and representational momentum. Journal of Mental Imagery, 26, 60-65.

Hubbard, T. L. (2004). The perception of causality: Insights from Michotte's launching effect, naive impetus theory, and representational momentum. In A. M. Oliveira, M.P. Teixeira, G. F. Borges, & M. J. Ferro (Eds.). Fechner Day 2004. Coimbra, Portugal: The International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 116-121.

Hubbard, T. L. (2005). An effect of target orientation on representational momentum. Paideia, 15, 207-216.

Hubbard, T. L. (2005). Representational momentum and related displacements in spatial memory: A review of the findings. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. 12, 822-851.

Hubbard, T. L. (2006). Bridging the gap: Possible roles and contributions of representational momentum. Psicologica, 27, 1-34.

Hubbard, T. L. (2006). Computational theory and cognition in representational momentum and related types of displacement: A reply to Kerzel. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13, 174-177.

Hubbard, T. L. (2006). Representational momentum, flash-lag, and motion capture. In D. E. Kornbrut, R. M. Msetfi, & A. W. MacRae (Eds.). Fechner Day 2006. Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics. St. Albans, UK: The International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 131-136).

Hubbard, T. L. (2008). Representational momentum as a new Gestalt principle. In B. A. Schneider, B. M. Ben-David, S. Parker, & W. Wong (Eds.), Fechner Day 2008. Proceedings of the 24th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 333-338). Toronto, ON: The International Society for Psychophysics.

Hubbard, T. L. (2008). Representational momentum contributes to motion induced mislocalization of stationary objects. Visual Cognition, 16, 44-67.

Hubbard, T. L. (2010). Approaches to representational momentum: Theories and models. In R. Nijhawan & B. Khurana (Eds.), Space and time in perception and action (pp. 338-365). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Hubbard, T. L. (2011). Extending pragnanz: Dynamic aspects of mental representation and Gestalt principles. In L. Albertazzi, G. J. van Tonder, & D. Vishwanath (Eds.), Perception beyond inference: The information content of visual processes (pp. 75-108). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Hubbard, T. L. (2013). Do the flash-lag effect and representational momentum involve similar extrapolations? Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 290. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00290.

Hubbard, T. L. (2013). Launching, entraining, and representational momentum: Evidence consistent with an impetus heuristic in perception of causality. Axiomathes, 23, 633-643.

Hubbard, T. L., & Bharucha, J. J. (1988). Judged displacement in apparent vertical and horizontal motion. Perception & Psychophysics, 44, 211-221.

Hubbard, T. L., & Blessum, J. A. (2001). A structural dynamic of form: Displacements in memory for the size of an angle. Visual Cognition, 8, 725-749.

Hubbard, T. L., Blessum, J. A., & Ruppel, S. E. (2001). Representational momentum and Michotte's (1946/1963) "Launching Effect" paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27, 294-301.

Hubbard, T. L. & Courtney, J. R. (2006). Evidence suggestive of separate visual dynamics in perception and in memory. In L. Albertazzi, (Ed.). Visual thought: The depictive space of the mind (pp. 71-98). Amsterdam: Benjamins Publishing Company.

Hubbard, T. L., & Courtney, J. R. (2008). The onset repulsion effect and motion induced mislocalization of a stationary object. Perception, 37, 1386-1398.

Hubbard, T. L., & Courtney, J. R. (2010). Cross-modal influences on representational momentum and representational gravity. Perception, 39, 851-862.

Hubbard, T. L., & Favretto, A. (2003). Naive impetus and Michotte's "Tool Effect:" Evidence from representational momentum. Psychological Research/Psychologische Forschung, 67, 134-152.

Hubbard, T. L., Hutchison, J. L., & Courtney, J. R. (2010). Boundary extension: Findings and theories. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63, 1467-1494.

Hubbard, T. L., Kumar, A. M., & Carp, C. L. (2009). Effects of spatial cueing on representational momentum. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 35, 666-677.

Hubbard, T. L., & Lange, M. (2010). Prior probabilities and representational momentum. Visual Cognition, 18, 1063-1087.

Hubbard, T. L., Matzenbacher, D. L., & Davis, S. E. (1999). Representational momentum in children: Dynamic information and analogue representation. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 88, 910-916.

Hubbard, T. L., & Motes, M. A. (2002). Does representational momentum reflect a distortion of the length or the endpoint of a trajectory? Cognition, 82, B89-B99.

Hubbard, T. L., & Motes, M. A. (2005). An effect of context on whether memory for initial position exhibits a Fröhlich Effect or an Onset Repulsion Effect. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58A, 961-979.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (1999). Representational momentum and landmark attraction effects. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 53, 242-256.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2000). Spatial memory averaging, the landmark attraction effect, and representational gravity. Psychological Research/Psychologische Forschung, 64, 41-55.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2002). A possible role of naïve impetus in Michotte's "launching effect": Evidence from representational momentum. Visual Cognition, 9, 153-176.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2011). Effects of spatial cuing on the onset repulsion effect. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 73, 2236-2248.

Hubbard, T. L., & Ruppel, S. E. (2013). Displacement of location in illusory line motion. Psychological Research/Psychologische Forschung, 77, 260-276.

Hubbard, T. L., Ruppel, S. E., & Courtney, J. R. (2005). The force of appearance: Gamma motion, impetus, and representational momentum. Psicologica, 26, 209-228.

Hudson, M., & Jellema, T. (2011). Resolving ambiguous behavioral intentions by means of involuntary prioritization of gaze processing. Emotion, 11, 681-686.

Hudson, M., Liu, C. H., & Jellema, T. (2009). Anticipating intentional actions: The effect of eye gaze direction on the judgment of head rotation. Cognition, 112, 423-434.

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Intraub, H. (2002). Anticipatory spatial representation of natural scenes: Momentum without movement? Visual Cognition, 9, 93-119.

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Jarrett, C. B., Phillips, M., Parker, A., & Senior, C. (2002). Implicit motion perception in schizotypy and schizophrenia: A representational momentum study. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 7, 1-14.

Jarraya, M., Amorim, M. A., & Bardy, B. G. (2005). Optical flow and viewpoint change modulate the perception and memorization of complex motion. Perception & Psychophysics, 67, 951-961.

Johnston, H. M., & Jones, M. R. (2006). Higher order pattern structure influences auditory representational momentum. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 32, 2-17.

Jones, M. R. (1976). Time, our lost dimension: Toward a new theory of perception, attention, and memory. Psychological Review, 83, 323-355.

Joordens, S., Spalek, T. M., Razmy, S., & van Duijn, M. (2004). A clockwork orange: Compensation opposing momentum in memory for location. Memory & Cognition, 32, 39-50.

Jordan, J. S., & Hunsinger, M. (2008). Learned patterns of action-effect extrapolation contribute to the spatial displacement of continuously moving stimuli. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 34, 113–124.

Jordan, J. S., & Knoblich, G. (2004). Spatial perception and control. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11, 54-59.

Jordan, J. S., Stork, S., Knuf, L., Kerzel, D., & Müsseler, J. (2002). Action planning affects spatial localization. In W. Prinz & B. Hommel (eds.). Attention and performance XIX: Common mechanisms in perception and action. New York: Oxford University Press.

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Kelly, M. H., & Freyd, J. J. (1987). Explorations of representational momentum. Cognitive Psychology, 19, 369-401.

Kerzel, D. (2000). Eye movements and visible persistence explain the mislocalization of the final position of a moving target. Vision Research, 40, 3703-3715.

Kerzel, D. (2002). A matter of design: No representational momentum with predictability. Visual Cognition, 9, 66-80.

Kerzel, D. (2002). Attention shifts and memory averaging. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 55(A), 425-443.

Kerzel, D. (2002). Different localization of motion onset with points and relative judgements. Experimental Brain Research, 145, 340-350

Kerzel, D. (2002). The locus of "memory displacement" is at least partially perceptual: Effects of velocity, expectation, friction, memory averaging, and weight. Perception & Psychophysics, 64, 680-692.

Kerzel, D. (2003). Attention maintains mental extrapolation of target position: Irrelevant distractors eliminate forward displacement after implied motion. Cognition, 88, 109-131.

Kerzel, D. (2003). Centripetal force draws the eyes, not memory of the target, toward the center. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 29, 458-466.

Kerzel, D. (2004). Attentional load modulates mislocalization of moving stimuli, but does not eliminate the error. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11, 848-853.

Kerzel, D. (2005). Representational momentum beyond internalized physics: Embodied mechanisms of anticipation cause errors of visual short-term memory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 180-184.

Kerzel, D. (2006). Why eye movements and perceptual factors have to be controlled in studies on "representational momentum." Psychological Bulletin & Review, 13, 166-173.

Kerzel, D., & Gegenfurtner, K. R. (2003). Neuronal processing delays are compensated in the sensorimotor branch of the visual system. Current Biology, 13, 1975-1978.

Kerzel, D., Jordan, J. S., & Müsseler, J. (2001). The role of perception in the mislocalization of the final position of a moving target. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 27, 829-840.

Knops, A., Viarouge, A., & Dehaene, S. (2009). Dynamic representations underlying symbolic and nonsymbolic calculation: Evidence from the operational momentum effect. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 71, 803-821.

Knops, A., Zitzmann, S., & McCrink, K. (2013). Examining the presence and determinants of operational momentum in childhood. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 235.

Krekelberg, B., & Lappe, M. (1999). Temporal recruitment along the trajectory of moving objects and the perception of position. Vision Research, 39, 2669-2679.

Kourtzi, Z., & Kanwisher, N. (2000). Activation in human MT/MST for static images with implied motion. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 12, 48-55.

Kourtzi, Z., & Nakayama, K. (2002). Distinct mechanisms for the representation of moving and static objects. Visual Cognition, 9, 248-264.

Kozhevnikov, M., & Hegarty, M. (2001). Impetus beliefs as default heuristics: Dissociation between explicit and implicit knowledge about motion. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 8, 439-453.

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Lappe, M., & Krekelberg, B. (1999). The position of moving objects. Perception, 27, 1437-1449.

Lenggenhager, B., Loetscher, T., Kavan, N., Pallich, G., Brodtmann, A., Nicholls, M. E. R., & Brugger, P. (2012). Paradoxical extension into the contralesional hemispace in spatial neglect. Cortex, 48, 1320-1328.

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Machado, L., & Rafal, R. D. (2004). Inhibition of return generated by voluntary saccades is independent of attentional momentum. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 57A, 789-796.

Maus, G. W., & Nijhawan, R. (2006). Forward displacement of fading objects in motion: The role of transient signals in perceiving position. Vision Research, 46, 4375-4381.

Maus, G. W., & Nijhawan, R. (2009). Going, going, gone: Localizing abrupt offsets of moving objects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35, 611-626.

McCrink, K., Dehaene, S., & Dehaene-Lambertz, G. (2007). Moving along the number line: Operation momentum in nonsylbolic arithmetic. Perception & Psychophysics, 69, 1324-1333.

McCrink, K., & Wynn, K. (2009). Operational momentum in large-number addition and subtraction by 9-month-olds. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 103, 400-408.

McGeorge, P., Beschin, N., & Della Sala, S. (2006). Representing target motion: The role of the right hemispehre in the forward displacement bias. Neuropsychology, 20, 708-715

McIntyre, J., Zago, M., Berthoz, A., & Lacquaniti, F. (2001). Does the brain model Newton's laws? Nature Neuroscience, 4, 693-694.

Miller, G. F., & Freyd, J. J. (1993). Dynamic mental representations of animate motion: The interplay among evolutionary, cognitive, and behavioral dynamics (Cognitive Science Research Paper No. 290). University of Sussex at Brighton.

Motes, M. A., Hubbard, T. L., Courtney, J. R., & Rypma, B. (2008). A principal components analysis of dynamic spatial memory biases. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34, 1076-1083.

Munger, M. P., Dellinger, M. C., Lloyd, T. G., Johnson-Reid, K., Tonelli, N. J., Wolf, K., & Scott, J. M. (2006). Representational momentum in scenes: Learning spatial layout. Memory & Cognition, 34, 1557-1568.

Munger, M. P., & Minchew, J. H. (2002). Parallels between remembering and predicting an object's location. Visual Cognition, 9, 177-194.

Munger, M. P., & Owens, T. R. (2004). Representational momentum and the flash-lag effect. Visual Cognition, 11, 81-103.

Munger, M. P., & Owens, T. R., & Conway, J. E. (2005). Are boundary extension and representational momentum related? Visual Cognition, 12, 1041-1056.

Munger, M. P., Solberg, J. L., & Horrocks, K. K. (1999). On the relation between mental rotation and representational momentum. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 25, 1557-1568.

Munger, M. P., Solberg, J. L., Horrocks, K. K., & Preston, A. S. (1999). Representational momentum for rotations in depth: Effects of shading and axis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 25, 157-171.

Müsseler, J., Stork, S., & Kerzel, D. (2002). Comparing mislocalizations with moving stimuli: The Fröhlich effect, the flash-lag, and representational momentum. Visual Cognition, 9, 120-138.

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Nagai, M., Kazai, K., & Yagi, A. (2002). Larger forward memory displacement in the direction of gravity. Visual Cognition, 9, 28-40.

Nagai, M., & Saiki, J. (2005). Illusory motion and representational momentum. Perception & Psychophysics, 67, 855-866.

Nagai, M. & Yagi, A. (2001). Pointedness effect on representational momentum. Memory & Cognition, 29, 91-99.

Neiworth, J. J., & Rilling, M. E. (1987). A method for studying imagery in animals. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 13, 203-214.

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Perry, L. K., Smith, L. B., Hockema, S. A. (2008). Representational momentum and children's sensori-motor representations of objects. Developmental Science, 11, F17-F23.

Pinhas, M., & Fischer, M. (2008). Mental movements with magnitude? A study of spatial biases in symbolic arithmetic. Cognition, 109, 408-415.

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